UFOs Ancient Civilizations Crop Circles Pyramids

The Face on Mars
Pyramid Cities

Pyramids on Mars - composite of original Viking I frames 70A13 and 35A72, from 1976
showing the entire Cydonia Complex - and colored orange to bring out fine details.
 Composite of Viking Frames 70A13 and 35A72
unmistakable contours of ancient water flow, running roughly northwest to southeast
as if the City were located on the western bank of a great waterway, many miles wide
(to give you an idea of scale, The Face is a mile and a half long and a half a mile wide)
but these markings are on top of the fainter, more regular, seashore edge elevations
(many smaller tributaries and streams can also be made out, throughout this image)
as if a very high volume of water rushed suddenly past here - and then nothing more
compare to spectral image (below right) showing where the long-standing water was.

Cydonia City
The Monuments of the Cydonia region of Mars are perhaps the most fascinating ruins ever yet discovered by man - on any planet. On the shores of an ancient Martian ocean, now completely dry, Man's first probes to our nearest planetary neighbor have detected a group of mounds, surrounding the Face, that even at first glance appear unnatural and complex in design. Further investigation of the mounds shows that they were in fact arranged in a definite complex geometric pattern - one that could not possibly have occurred naturally, and apparently required much thought and labor to create, by architects who knew more about mathematics than we have the even optimistic ability to half way decode today. Predominant throughout the area, the angles implied by arrangement of structures within the City are of a relation to each other which suggests alignment to astronomical phenomena within this solar system - and beyond.

The significance of the geometry found here, and therefore artificiality of Cydonia, cannot be understated - and should not be underestimated. It seems to call to us, using the universal language of mathematics, in simultaneously beautiful and complex patterns: "we were here." Whether this was the site's intended purpose, or just the way that the ancient architects designed this awesome site for their own purposes; there are seemingly countless angles here, that through thorough invsetigation cast out any hastened notions of natural erosion or random occurance.

New Frontiers in Science -
Vol. 1, No. 3 (Spring 2002)

- by Mark Carlotto
Included in the anomalies surrounding the Face are several giant pyramids - the chief among them being the massive D&M pyramid which has more mathematics associated with it than you can shake a slide rule at. Additional features include the Tholus, a conical shaped object just slightly bigger than the Face - and a Cliff, adjacent to a massive crater, together forming a giant number 10, which is perhaps the only coincidence in the entire region. A close group of smaller structures, named The City, contains over a dozen pyramid mounds - and a curious pile of rubble, that investigators have nicknamed The Fortress. Further off to the west, and only discovered relatively recently in neighboring Viking frames, are more pyramidial mounds and a possible second Face. Many more objects are likely to be identified as further high resolution MGS images of Cydonia, and in fact all of Mars, are released to the public.

All of these structures, besides jumping out at you on first glance, are aligned precisely to each other utilizing pheonomenally dynamic mathematical relationships; that scientists are only beginning to discover, much less understand their purpose. Given that these structures were laid out this way intentionally, it begs the question: why would someone go to so much trouble? Could they have been using Pyramid Energy to tap into the magnetic field of Mars, as a sort of infinite power supply? Were they trying to send a direct message to anyone with enough math skills to know what they were looking at? And for that matter, do we even have the faintest idea just what it is that we are looking at, when we examine Cydonia?

The Martian Chronicles
cover of The Martian Chronicles
- by Ray Bradbury
Seaside Spaceport
This unofficial dating of the unofficially archaeological Martian site fits in with theories of ancient civilizations, including the legend of Atlantis: that humans lived in this star system eons ago, settling on the inner planets, but suffered many cataclysms - their great and technologically advanced society passing into mythology.

One of the first things that archaeologists try to determine about a site that they investigate is its purpose. The Face is only recognizable from space, or very high up in the air, - so we can assume that they at least had some manner of flight capabilities, if not complete mastery of the skies. They certainly had mastery of geometry - and architecture, for that matter. Dwarfing the pyramids of Giza and Teohuanaco, the largest on Earth - each Martian mound is about a cubic mile in volume - such close similarity in size alone being more than enough to rule out natural formation as a possibility.

Situated on the shore of an ancient ocean, Cydonia seems at first glance like the ruins of a once great city. The way the craters have spilled over onto the surrounding terrain seems to indicate that the ground was very muddy, soft and heavy at the times of impact. Exactly where the waterline was at the time of construction and/or occupation is a question hopefully to be answered by future ground investigators. In the meantime, curious features like the Mesa (situated due east of the Face, about half way to the Tholus), and the Pyramid Island (just beyond it), are left to almost sheer speculation as to their purpose.

Although no obvious landing strips are apparent (unless certain mounds, or even the very pyramids themselves, may have possibly served this purpose), we cannot rule out that people capable of building such an impressive complex might have developed equally impressive technology regarding their transportation to and from the site. The Mesa could well have been such a landing pad for hovering craft to set down gently upon. If this object were also surrounded by water, along with similar neighboring objects, then the pyramids themselves may have been slightly submerged to a certain level - or there may have even been a variable beachfront along the urban Martian waterway. The texture surrounding the "10" Cliff and Crater seems almost fjord like - although that could in fact be entirely due to ejection, at the crater's creation.

Further speculation may have to wait until we are able to determine more about the people who once lived here, and the cataclysm that destroyed Cydonia - most likely the very same disaster that turned Mars into the frozen desert that it is today. But there are the obvious telltale signs of running water - as if a river, several miles wide, were once running just east of the Face, so very long ago.

In addition to signs of shorline, many other signs of topographic varriation can be observed, suggesting minor waterways feeding the wider riverbed. Also, several sometimes winding tributaries can be identified on closer inspection, once you begin looking for them - one particularly prominent ancient stream is directly between the D&M Pyramid and the Tholus, at the very bottom center of the Composite picture (above).

While nearly all of the objects appear damaged, particularly on the eastern faces, some seem incomplete - as if Cydonia was a city under construction at the time of its demise. One particular mound, almost forming an equaliteral triangle with the D&M Pyramid and the Face, appears as though it would align more perfectly if it were enlarged to the east, to be a symmetrical duplicate of the D&M Pyramid. With all the angles and cosines and Golden Means employed at this site, few Cydonian Complex researchers would likely be surprised if this turned out to be the case.

As human beings, when we encounter strange archaeological sites, with no surmisable data on their origin or purpose, we tend to put them into terms that we can identify with. Nearly every ancient civilization we encounter, we tend to put into the category of ignorant and superstitious, primitive, tribal peoples; and sometimes this is a mistake. This is certainly not the case, however, with Cydonia, or any site we're likely to find on Mars. Perhaps this is the reason for the cover up - no one can know that we are not now at the height of intelligence and technology.

Today, we see a city on another planet and imagine a technological hub, like something out of science fiction. This seems very likely considering the vast technology needed to construct the site, in all its grandeur and mystery. But they could have been just people - people who were from a vastly different culture, one much older than ours and therefore more advanced, who knew something about the universe that we do not, some things that we can barely begin to understand about certain subjects that we do not yet know are related. Whether Cydonia was a spaceport, or a temple, or a city, or a power plant, or any combination of these; it most certainly was something important - and thus, it should be important to us.

 Seven Four Sided Dice  One Twenty Sided Die
Assortment of Dice - four-sided tetrehedrons (left), twenty-sided icosohedron (right).
The tetrehedron is a pure geometrical form, found prevalent throughout the Cydonia Complex.

A Certain Latitude
A good place to begin an understanding of Cydonia is with the tetrahedron (right). A tetrahedron is a simple three dimensional shape, consisting of four equilateral triangles, forming a three sided pyramid (right). One of the simplest three dimensional shapes, only the sphere and cube bear such elegance and simple perfection - and the tetrahedron is by far the most unlikely to occur naturally. Another universal shape, though not quite so simple: involving, and entirely consisting of equilateral triangles; is the icosohedron, or twenty sided die (above right) - which, with tetrahedrons as four sided dice (above right), are used in games like Dungeons and Dragons. These shapes are known for their engineering stability, as in Bucky Balls or Geodesic Domes (below left) - and, like the arch, is almost entirely self supporting.
 Tetrehedron - Four Faced Shape
Perhaps one of the most intriguing universal constants found at Cydonia involves the mathematical harmony of tetrahedrons and spheres (below right). When a tetrahedron is placed inside a sphere of equal diameter, with a corner at a pole, the opposite side and remaining three corners land on exactly 19.5 latitude - an angle that continually shows up again and again in the more and more assuredly artificial structures of Cydonia. This is a fixed angle: no matter what their size, as long as the tetrahedron and sphere have the same diameter, you will always arrive at 19.5 past the equator. The numbers themselves are perhaps unimportant, as these relationships are "analog" universal constants, apart from our "digital" interpretations of a 360 circle. But this special angle is just as valid as, say, a 60 angle for an equalateral triangle - though perhaps more advanced, which only makes it even less likely to be a quirk of fate. At the end of the day, this alone could keep serious scientists looking into Cydonia.
 180 Faced Bucky Ball
The significance of 19.5 to Cydonia is only taken into account when the angle keeps popping up in repetitive measurements of the structures. A line from the Teardrop on the Face to the D&M Pyramid is at a 19.5 angle to a line from the Teardrop to the City Square. Certain prominant angles on the D&M Pyramid itself are at a 19.5 angle to the Martian lines of latitude, and thus perpindicular to the Martian poles. The Root-2 Mounds, a collection of smaller mounds within the City arranged at the corners of a grid based on the square root of two, also most frequently relate to each other with the tetrahedral angle.

If there were several dozen right angled structures on Mars, all arranged very much like a modern Earth city, or if the number 3 kept popping up everywhere you looked, few would doubt the validity of the theories of artificiality - although some would still argue that there must be some "rational" explanation besides Human intervention. But these are Cosmic Numbers - and go beyond 30 or 45 or even 90 and suddenly puts it into the category of "irrational" or even "surreal" numbers - boosting the importance and obviousness of artificiality, and by a group of technologically advanced architects. The only thing missing is the big neon sign saying: "Here I am, notice me!" This is also, perhaps equally uncoincidentally, the latitude chosen for the landing site of the Mars Pathfinder mission (below left). Could NASA be taking Cydonia more seriously than they let on?

Assuming that NASA has their head on slightly straight, if clandestinely, regarding Cydonia and the 19.5 angles found throughout - perhaps the Pathfinder landing site was pointed to by one of the pyramids, or some other such structures for that specific longitude. This methodology works completely outside the theory that Mars was once rotating differently, having suffered a pole shift in the disaster that changed the face of Mars. One theory, to be discussed more thoroughly later, has Mars as a moon of a larger planet that is now the Asteroid belt. This Exploded Planet Theory also has the Face situated at a geocentric point closest to the mother world. With Cydonia located on the equator and aligned perfectly to the north pole.
Considering for a moment that the builders' purposes had absolutely nothing to do with drawing attention to the site, that's just the way they did things - and taking into account just what we know so far about pyramid energy, focussing electromagnetic energy to a central point through perpindicular planes - it seems as though the ancient Cydonians may have been somehow using the arrangement and planetary placement of the pyramids to generate electric power for their Martian civilization, by tapping into the once strong magentic field of the Red planet. The Face, though situated with equal precision, could be said to be purely asthetic otherwise - although some investigators have detected what may be entrances to a set of tunnels burrowing deep underground.

In any case, 19.5 is a significant benchmark in spherical geometry - and cannot be considered a coincidence under any circumstances. It also speaks directly to the pyramidal forms found throughout the region, and tetrahedral pyramids in general. In addition to the tetrahedral latitude, we find the square roots of 2, 3 and 5 demonstrated throughout the Cydonia Complex. Scientists are currently looking into what the relationships between these numbers possibly can tell us about the site. But it doesn't take a rocket scientist to see that these mounds are more than randomly formed Martain rocks.

Perhaps the advanced nature of the mathematics was intentional - too far out of reach for primitive cultures to grasp, or be interested, or even notice in the first place. If it were easy to explain to the masses, there would be a mass public outcry for manned expeditions. Perhaps the site was designed to call attention to itself, but only to those who are ready to accept it - and ready to deal with what Cydoinia has to tell us about our own past. It goes against everything that we've been taught, that our centuries old society has always believed. To suggest that we are not alone in the universe is controversial enough - but far less heretical than the idea that it was actually our distant ancestors who built Cydonia. Perhaps it is only when we can look beyond the veil and think for ourselves, that we will be ready to understand the truth of Mars.

 Tetrahedron Inside Sphere - 19.5 Angle
 19.5 North Martian Latitude

 z score
Nonrandom Distribution of Angles - by Professor Stanley V McDaniel
The accompanying graph is a dramatic representation of the "signal in the noise" that, among other evidence, has convinced SPSR scientists that the Cydonia area deserves high priority for investigation by NASA.

...Random geology would expect a z-score in magnitude no greater than 2 or, to be conservative, 3, for this particular site. Instead we have a sharp peak, representing a z-score of 7.42 precisely when the angle t equals 19.5 degrees, representing one particular set of isoceles and right triangles. It turns out that this particular set is the one containing the same angles as those measured under GADE. Thus the prediction was fulfilled that, if the angles from GADE were significant, the number of times these angles appear among the remaining mound angles would be far beyond chance. The z-score of those angles is so high as to rule out chance as playing any significant part whatsoever in the distribution of the actual mounds.

 Root 2 Mounds in The City
Smaller Mounds in the Complex Arranged with Sacred Geometry
Analysis of the positions of various smaller mounds within The City
shows their geometrical relationships based on universal constants.
The position of mound D marks the center of a side of a tetrahedron.
Trigonometric Proportions of the City of Pyramids - at Cydonia, Mars (above)
This diagram of smaller mounds within the "Pyramid City" of the Cydonia Complex
shows their difinitively symmetrical, non-fractal, and ovbiously artificial arrangement
on a mathematical grid based on the cosmic ratio of one to the square root of two.

The Way of the Ancients
Like the Pyramids at Giza and Teotihuacan, the more you look at the Cydonia complex, the more amazing features and unlikely coincindences you will see. It is as if the designers were voicing their existence to a future Human culture - saying that they were there; they were human; that they knew about the stars, geometry and physics; and they knew how to build massive monuments as big as mountains. This is something even we, with our "nuclear bombs and striped toothpaste" have incredible difficulty with. Although we are able to eventually accomplish some of the engineering feats demonstrated here - it makes more economical sense, for now, to stick to our familiar brick and metal buildings of average size. But the ancients didn't leave anything like this behind, or none of it has survived. The thing of it is, this is exactly the type of messages we send out with space probes to hopefully one day greet alien cultures with - only far more advanced. We are only now, with our modern technological advances, able to recognize these "Temples of the Gods" as something almost within reach, but still far beyond anything we are able to duplicate today - or would have thought of on our own. Perhaps we already did though, so very long ago.
Diagram of Martian Mounds arranged on a grid based on the square root of two
One of the more interesting formations in Cydonia is a curious collection of Mounds within the area dubbed The City. Although easily overlooked, closer inspection of the anomalies reveals, to even the naked eye, that some of the mounds are equidistant - and upon closer inspection, even further beyond the realm of chance, they are arranged at the corners of a grid based on the square root of two (above right). That is: if the distance separating the parallel lines running roughly east to west were said to be one, then the distance between the parallel lines running roughly north to south is the square root of two. These mounds are also obviously purposefully arranged in a trigonometric design found in the fundamentals of ancient Sacred Geometry.
 Tetrehedron in Cydonian Mounds
Again and again at Cydonia, we find mathematical relationships that could not possibly be a coincindence or occur naturally. Mound D, on the Root 2 Grid, is positioned exactly to represent the center of a tetrahedron (left). The 19.5 tetrahedral angle, as explained above, is also repeated throughout the Cydonia Complex. Even conservative investigators urge that, if the formations are somehow natural, it is certainly an interesting phenomenon worthy of further investigation. But why this partcicular mound, and what is its purpose? Like a bridge, or a back yard patio, these "molehills" are somewhat indicative of something massive, once raised high above the surface of Mars. Some even speculate that these regularly spaced Mounds could be remnants of a much larger structure, like a platform - or perhaps even an ancient runway. Whatever their purpose, even if it was to simply bring attention to the site - and it certainly has gotten ours - our knowledge of this system of numbers has no known origin. It is found in nearly every ancient archaeological site on every continent on the planet. Sacred Geometry dates back long before recorded history - likely to Atlantis, and beyond.
Also known as Pythagorean Geometry, followers of the Greek philosopher Pythagoras would in ancient times greet each other with secret symbols of this nature. Like something out of a spy movie, one would offer the other an apple, and the other would cut it at the equator to reveal the pentagram shape of the core. Investigators of secret societies speculate that this was but a small part of a much larger bulk of high knowledge - handed down through countless generations, from Atlantis, to Noah - and even to the inner circles of power today. The layout and design of monuments and major government buildings in Washinton DC utilize these relationships - perhaps the most conspicuous, the Pentagon. It comes as no surprise, to those who study these relationships, that NASA is strenuously avoiding all possible public acknowledgement of Cydonia. But even the emblems for individual space missions contain these subtle references, much like the ancient Pythagoreans.
Sacred Geometry is where art and science come together - yin and yang, left brain and right brain, male and female, the material world and the supernatural, the known and the unknowable. Demonstrating an understanding of these relationships is more than a declaration of intelligence - it is also perhaps one of the most powerful methods of connecting with cosmic forces, that we are only now beginning to imagine. A connection between an ancient signature form of architectural design and monuments on Mars is profound in the extreme. This would prove beyond any reasonable shadow of doubt that this is not the first generation of Man that has ventured to the stars. The missing link to uncovering the truth, and identities of the builders of Cydonia, may be Atlantis - cataclysmic disaster being another common theme.

The five basic ratios of Sacred Geometry are very simple and easy to remember - Pi, Phi, and the Square Roots of Two, Three and Five. In rounded values, Pi is 3.1416, Phi is 1.618, the Square Root of Two is 1.414, the Square Root of Three is 1.732, and the Square Root of Five is 2.238. These are all irrational numbers, defined by the phenomenon that you can compute them digitally, in the decimal system, into infinity and never discover their exact value - so far as anyone has ever been able to compute, that is. All of them are simple, elegant and perhaps mysteriously aesthetic. Additionally, these numbers all take on a more profound meaning when expressed as ratios - as x compared to one, or "The One." According to geomancers, "The One is where it begins" - which is ironic and poetic enough to be associated with the cosmic brand of mathematics involved. They are all found in abundance at Cydonia.

Diagram of Martian Mounds arranged on a grid based on the square root of two

 The Circle and Pi
 Sacred Geometry Ratio of Phi
 The Square and the Square Root of Two

Pi (3.1416) is perhaps the most famous of these, found in the formulas for measuring a circle - an obvious, easily expressed and naturally infinite line. In a perfect Circle (above, left), any radius (CD) is equal to exactly half of any diameter (AB) - and the circumference equals the diameter times Pi. Pi is a transcendental number, and therefore cannot be described with the same degree of accuracy as the physical square. The Circle is considered ideal for spiritual activities throughout history - and many sacred spaces are circular. In sacred geometry, the circle represents the spiritual realms, while the square represents the physical and material world. The Circle is also considered to be Yin, while the Square is considered to be Yang.

Phi (1.618) is the Golden Section of the Greeks. It was said to be the first section in which the One became many. The Phi ratio is expressed in the line ABC (above, center), where the shorter length AB relates to the longer length BC, as the longer length BC relates to AC, or the entire line. Start at The One, or one, and add it to itself to get two. Add this to the previous number to get 3. Do this repeatedly to get 5, 8, 13, 21, etc. The progression of fractions 1/2, 2/3, 3/5, 5/8, 8/13, 13/21 (and so on) come closer and closer, but never actually reach the exact figure of the Phi ratio.

The Square Root of Two (1.414) - is most easily discovered when measuring the cross section of a perfect Square (above, left). In a Square (ABCD) with four equal sides having the value of One, the diagonal (AC) equals the Square Root of Two. Thus, the length of any diagonal of a perfect square will equal the Square Root of Two times the length of one side. This is the crux of the relationships of the ratios of all of these numbers, when compared with "The One." In Sacred Geometry, the Square represents the physical world, as "it can be defined totally." If its side is one, its perimeter is exactly four, and its area is one square - exactly. The Square is yang.
The Square Root of Three (1.732) is demonstrated in the Vesica Pisces (vessel of the fish) - a Sacred Geometrical figure where two Circles intersect at a certain very cosmic point (right). In this simple diagram, lengths A and B relate to each other through the Phi Ratio - that is, if the shorter length (A) is said to be one, the longer length (B) is equal to the Sacred Geometrical value of Phi (1.618). The Vesica Pisces is found throughout Old World architecture, in the form of the arch (below left) - which is also the root word of "architecture." This specific formula is the basis behind classic arches found especially in European churches, and especially from the Renaissance Era. In this diagram, line AB is said to be one (as is the distance between point C and either point A or B, to further the elegance of the ratios), and the other radius of the internal oval, or subset, line CD is thus equal to the Square Root of Three.

Just one of those interesting coincidences? Not hardly. Even this little, most basic level of knowledge of things like this was closely guarded by secret societies of the middle and dark ages, and before. The strange rituals that still survive in the form of bizarre initiation rites of college fraternities have their roots in the ancient "Keepers of the Ancient Wisdom" from the Free Masons, to the Knights Templar - to the Royal Houses of Europe, the Cathoic Church, and even NASA, today. If the "Powers That Be" have known about this phenomenon of mathematics for centuries, and they have been given the "Sacred Geometrical" data on Cydonia, why do they still publicy scoff at the Face on Mars? The answer is simple - "They" don't want it to become "Public Knowledge." Beyond this is cause for great speculation - but the proof is in the numbers.

The Square Root of Five (2.236) is most easily found in the Double Square (right) - that is, two squares placed side by side. In a rectangle where the short side is 1 and the longer side is 2, the diagonal is equal to the Square Root of Five. More interesting math: (root 5), 2.236 = .618 + 1 + .618 = Phi + .618 - or, Phi minus one, then times two, then plus one - simple, eh? That's the thing about Sacred Geometry - you can juggle it around any way you like, and they all still relate to each other very simply. These are the same phenomena that the Pyramids of Egypt and Mexico are based on - and Stonehenge, and many other ancient Sacred sites around the world.

The Square Root of Five relates to Phi by creating a circle from certain key points in the Double Square (left). Create a Square (ABCD), bisect the square (EF), thereby creating two Double Squares from the original Square. Now draw a line from the middle of the base to an upper corner (ED) - the ratio of lines EC to ED is One to the Square Root of Five. Create an arc using ED as a radius, intersecting horizon BC at points I and H. Lines IB and CG both equal exactly 0.618 - thus, lines IC and BG both equal 1.618, which is Phi. Additionally, Square ABGH is known as the Golden Rectangle (having sides with ratios of 1 to 1.618, or One to Phi). Continue the arc to create a full circle, in which a Double Square fits perfectly into (the original Square, plus its mirror image duplicate, across the horizon). The sides of the original Square said to be One, the radius of this circle is equal to One Half of the Square Root of Five, or Phi minus One Half. There are many more dynamic relationships in this simple diagram, which are also laid out at Cydonia.

The Pythagorean Theorem (right) states that A+B=C in any right triangle. The 3-4-5 Right Triangle is perhaps the easiest to understand, as 9+16=25 - the phenomena in its simplest form, the lowest common denominator. The corners also measure in at 30 60 and 90 quite aesthetically - and is thus the gateway to understanding Trigonometry.

Keeping in mind the Sacred Geometrical passion for the Square Roots of 2, 3 and 5, the middle value can also be said to be 2 Double Squared. Sacred Geometry is also highly concerned with the values of 2 and One Half, and their mirror complimentary relationship to One - or, The One.

But even if this is just a pile of interesting numbers, there are far too many 3-4-5 Right Triangles in Cydonia to be considered a product of chance. If you were to see a house or a city with as many, you would think the residents or architects had "a thing" for the shape itself. Apparently, the designers of the Cydonia Complex did indeed have "a thing" for these most basic, yet not naturally occurring, phenomena of Sacred Geometry.

One very interesting example of Sacred Geometry prefectly demonstrates the relationship between the Earth and the Moon (bottom, right). Take a square and place a perfect circle inside so it touches the square at the midpoints of the four sides. Say the diameter of the circle and the length of each of the sides of the square is 11. Take two 3-4-5 right triangles and place them at either side of the top of the square, with the 4 side down (like a roof on a house) - this leaves room for a square in the center, with its sides being exactly 3. Place a second circle inside this second square, as in the first pair below. The ratio between these two circles is exactly the same as that of the Earth and the Moon! Perhaps this seems at first like an overly complex way to demonstrate the ratio between two prime numbers, 11 and 3 - but now, draw a line between the center points of the two circles, and use that as a radius to draw a third circle. This new, largest circle crosses the original square, with the corners sticking out slightly (and there are other interesting measurements associated with that) - but perhaps the greatest coincidence is that its circumference is equal to the perimeter of the larger original square!

There are many other interesting geometrical alignments within this diagram. The great pyramids of Egypt, Mexico and China are based on this phenomena - this is how they align to the cardinal points and the dimensions of the Earth. These relationships are found throughout the Cydonia Complex, but the pyramids of Cydonia are mostly five-sided - so use more involved ratios in addition to the relatively simple formulas shown here. Many of these we are just now beginning to understand, but are natural extensions of the ancient wisdom of Sacred Geometry.

In popular science fiction, a common theme for the imagined culture of Martians (apart from being short and green) is advanced mathematics, with a numerical system based on Three - and even architecture based on complex Triangles. These may all in fact turn out to be the case - but what if the Martians are real, and turn out to be our very distant ancestors?

 Vesica Piscis
 Vesica Piscis of the Sacred Arch
 The Double Square and the Square Root of Five
 Phi and the Golden Mean
 The Pythagorean Theorem
 Sacred Geometry of the Earth and Moon

Sacred Geometry
The Construction of Ancient Archaeological Sites
utilizes and is centered around certain universal constants
including Pi, Phi, and the Square Roots of Two, Three and Five

Dr. Horace Crater's Diagram of alignments
within The City showing mounds arranged
in equilateral and right triangles on a grid
with the ratio of one to the square root of two.
 Dr. Crater's diagram of alignments within The City
 The DM Pyramid, the Face and 19.5
The geometrical D&M Pyramid points to the Face
at a 19.5 angle relationship to the center of the City

Focal Point
The D&M Pyramid (named for prominant Cydonia investigators Vincent DiPietro and Gregory Molenaar, the original Viking project scientists who re-discovered the controversial Viking frames) could just as easily stand for the Diamond of Mars. The shortest of the five sides being about a mile long, its longest axis about two miles, and standing about a half mile tall, this small mountain checks in at about a cubic mile in volume. As gigantic as any other monument in the immediate area, it may very well be the Rosetta Stone of Cydonia - the key to understanding the ancient Martians designs.

This massive and impressive structure might certainly seem at first glance to be just another unassuming rock formation (and it is certainly being dismissed as such, at least publicly) but it is actually a complex example of Euclidean Geometry. Almost overshadowing the Face itself as a centerpiece for the entire Cydonia Complex, the D&M Pyramid is full of the same cosmic ratios found throughout the monuments of the area, in both orientation and design. This five sided pyramid, is aligned to the Martain Cardinal Points with an unmistakable pentagonal outline - and also points directly to the Face, the City Center and the Tholus (right) at coincidentally the very same precise angles seen throughout Sacred Geometry.

This phenomenally elegant and ancient branch of mathematics, known to us as Sacred Geometry, that are used in the design of many ancient archaeological sites on Earth: such as Stonehenge in Southern England, the Sphinx and Pyramids at Giza near Cairo in Egypt, and the Mayan Pyramids of Teotihuacan, just outside what is now Mexico City. In fact, it is impossible to look at these sites as they really are, without realizing that they were built by the same culture (or, at the very least, related cultures).

 DM Pyramid aligned to other features of Cydonia
Its line of symmetry points north and directly to the Teardrop on the Face, just below the right or western Eye - the distance between these two points being, amazingly, 1/360th the polar diameter of Mars. The northeast line can be extended to intersect the Tholus, a massive conical formation roughly twenty miles to the east. A mirror line, to the northwest, projects to the center of a close arrangement of mounds in the City, known to investigators as the City Square. In a triangle drawn between the Teardrop, the north point of the D&M Pyramid and the City Square, the angle at the Teardrop is 19.5 - the tetrahedral latitude angle.
 Leonardo DaVinci's Vitruvian Man
In 1988, cartographer Erol Torun developed a hypothetical model of the D&M pyramid's original shape (above) and determined that the structure incorporates many "facets" of Euclidean Geometry. In addition to the tetrahedral 19.5 angle, numerous trigonometric functions are identified, involving the irrational numbers Pi, Phi and the square roots of 2, 3 and 5 - the five main foundations of Sacred Geometry. The dimensions of the D&M Pyramid are approximately 1 mile by 1.6 miles - extremely close to the Golden Section ratio, utilized in Sacred Geometry (that the units are in fact miles is the subject of another discussion, involving the ancient origin of miles as units of measure), and well within natural erosion parameters to take for granted that the pyramid was constructed with these very prevalent dimensions also in mind.

In perhaps the most stunning observation in the whole Cydonian Complex, and what writer Graham Hancock calls "The Rosetta Stone" of the Cydonia Complex, Richard Hoagland found that Leonardo DaVinci's Vitruvian Man (left) may be perfectly superimposed upon the D&M Pyramid - as if the structure were designed to communicate the concept of "humanoid proportions" across the ages. This Phi ratio is extremely aesthetic in nature, and nearly everything about the design of the human form incorporates these ratios - everything from the length of our limbs and the digits of every finger; to the proportions and size of the human head and even our belly button. To deviate even slightly from these precise measurements gives one an odd appearance, and is instantly perceived by others, even unconsciously. The five pointed star, with Phi, is also very prevalent in the arrangement of the face - everything from eyes and nose to cheekbones and dimples. These relationships are all to be found in the exact same proportions on the Cydonian Face as well.

From: The Case for the Face - by McDaniel, Paxon, et al - p. 285
[In 1988] Erol Torun, a cartographer at the Defense Mapping Agency in Washington DC, undertakes a geomorphological and geometric analysis of the object called the "D&M Pyramid" (after DiPietro and Molenaar). He proposes a hypothetical model of the original shape of the formation, which appears to be geometrically sophisticated and to express numerous universal mathematical constants. He concludes that no known geological process can adequately account for the formation.

Following Torun's hypotheses, Hoagland claims that the same universal constants may be found in geometric relationships between the D&M Pyramid and other nearby objects. He calls this group of objects the "Cydonia Complex" and argues that the latitude of the D&M Pyramid may be expressed in terms of those constants.

Cosmic Spiral
The Cydonian Golden Mean Diagram (below, right) shows the advanced artistic, mathematic and geometric implimentation of the Golden Means within the arrangements of The Face, Pyramids, City and overall design of the Cydonia Complex. Whatever their origin, even if they came into existence by some weird freak of nature, they are aligned precisely to these configurations - as no other known collection of mounds, except for a handful of ancient archaeological sites. Cydonia shares this trait in common only with known artificial structures, that were designed by mysterious civilizations in antiquity. This is a signature, a fingerprint, of a vastly advanced scientific culture - and one that we have no public record of.
The Golden Mean is an extension of this mathematical wisdom, forming a Perfect Spiral - a complex mathematical formula, involving geometry with only cursory apparent practical, aesthetic, architectural use today. Add that to the "sacred" status held by the ancients, and the whole issue gets thrown out as fiction or superstition - or worse, and even more laughable, magic!

The missing piece in this puzzle, that could possibly bring esteemed "mainstream science" to accept this form of "magic" would be data regarding how this was scientifically relevant to the archaeological sites where this pattern is utilized. This would, however, undoubtedly reveal how natural forces, supposedly beyond the ancient's comprehension (like gravity and even antigravity), was used by man thousands, if not millions, of years ago. This would be the definition of controversial for those who wish to contend that Man's existence on this planet, status as a sentient life form, and cultural evolution, is linear.

Like the many suspiciously ancient sites in question that utilize the Golden Mean, it is elegant and simple on the surface - yet owes its existence to the relationship between some of the most primordial forces in existence - something that modern science refuses for an instant to believe could possibly have existed so far in the past. But there it is, staring us in the face, from another Face on a neighboring world.

To construct a Golden Mean, start with a Golden Rectangle (right), with sides of ratio of One to Phi. This is a precise and constant ratio in that the ratio of the smaller section to the larger is exactly the same as the larger to the whole. This ratio can be most easily understood as roughly 3/5, or 5/8, or 8,13, or 13/21, and so on, on into infinity. The Golden Mean demonstrates the infinty aspects of this phenomenon in an ever outward reaching spiral.

The City conforms to the Golden Mean
 The Golden Rectangle
The Golden Mean

From: The Mars Mystery p. 288 - by Graham Hancock
Torun's DM Pyramid Trigonometry
During the Hoagland U. N. presentation in 1992 . . . robust mathematical and geometric linkage was presented, specifically connecting for the first time the siting of "Cydonia" on Mars . . . with the Egyptian location of the Pyramids and Sphinx on Earth; the arctangent (.865) of the "D&M Pyramid" geodetic Martian latitude (40.87 N.) is the same (within one part in a 1000) as the cosine of the Sphinx's current latitude on Earth. And, if the increasingly uncertain age of the Sphinx is factored in via literal "continental drift," this astonishingly close latitude match is even closer...

Geographic Geometry
"A New Look at an Old Design" ~ by Jim Alison
Exploring Geographic and Geometric Relationships
Along a Line of Ancient Sites Around the World

Cydonia Avebury Overlay
Cydonia Avebury Overlay - When Silbury Hill is aligned perfectly with The Tholus or Spiral Mound on Mars
(both are logarithmic spirals), and the large crater is superimposed over The Outer Circle of Avebury,
Earth lines of longitude run through not only Silbury Hill (and The Tholus on Mars), but also The Face;
and a road (which predates the area's known history) corresponds perfectly to "the wall" part of The 10;
and just to the southwest, the peak of the five-sided DM Pyramid corresponds to the The Stele.

Keeping Up With the Neighbors
The entire site of Cydonia, including the Pyramids is duplicated precisely (though at a somewhat reduced scale, of 14:1) in the megalithic man made ceremonial mounds of Avebury, in Southwest England. - just 30 km north of Stonehenge. The original date of construction is not known, but it goes back thousands of years.

Besides being astronomically aligned, an energy seems to be eminating from the stones. The town of Avebury, which exists within the larger circle, is said to be one of the happiest modern villages on Earth. No one knows exactly what is under Avebury's mounds, or for that matter England's many other man made hills. Maybe it's a Stone Face, a pyramid, or a crashed UFO - but chances are it's nothing a caveman would recognize.

The Stone Circle of Avebury
While investigating, Alan Butler discovered an ancient system of trade routes and megalithic site alignments conforming to a 366 degree rationalization of the globe. Avebury falls along one of these lines, also.

The many points of interest at Cydonia correspond exactly to points of interest at Avebury, and relate to each other using the same acute tetrahedral angle of 19.5 - something not attributed to coincidence in any science. What's perhaps most interesting however, is that the angle itself is profound in nature, being predominant also in not only the pyramids of Giza, but also the pyramids of America, built by the Mayans. It is strongly assumed by Cydonian reseachers and "Face Fans" that once ground investigation of the Cydonian pyramids is undertaken that the 19.5 angles will be also found incorporated within the monuments, which are much larger than any pyramid found on earth to date (though the base of the recently discovered Australian pyramid has not yet been excavated).

Like Stonhenge (and many other less famous megalithic sites in the UK), Avebury has been considered a Holy place by Celts and Druids since time immemorable. Even today, they perform rituals, winding their way up the spiral path to the top of the mound that just happens to correspond to the Face ~ just as their ancestors have, for longer than any written records have shown.

People weren't supposed to have had any technology whatsoever prior to a few thousand years BC ~ despite much leaning of late. Many people see a resemblance to the face on the Sphinx in Egypt, and a few have even speculated that this face was designed to be spotted by the Humans living on Earth (with enough technology to see that far) as so much of the Giza site seems to shout of superior intelligence but only for those with the eyes to see and the ears to hear it. Also much like Giza, the more one looks at Cydonia, the more curious coincidences pop up and seem to say "advanced technological culture."

From: The Salt Lines - by Alan Butler
There is masses of information around concerning Avebury, so you won't need me to say too much about it. Suffice it to say that it is often eclipsed in importance by its southern cousin, Stonehenge. In fact Avebury was a much bigger project and must have been the ceremonial centre of the Salisbury Plain area back in the Bronze age and before.

Avebury once contained a huge outer stone circle with a bank and ditch. Inside this were two smaller circles which have now more or less disappeared. There is a massive ceremonial Avenue that connects Avebury with surrounding monuments and burials. An early admirer said that Avebury outshone Stonehenge in the same way that a Great Cathedral surpassed a humble Parish Church.

Avebury is on the 2 52 west longitudinal Salt Line. The line passes through the western edge of the greater circle. What went on here, the actual reason for building such a huge and widespread monument and why it fell into disuse we shall probably never know. Imagine my surprise, back when I first plotted the Salt lines on England, to discover that Avebury, queen of all the Megalithic monuments of Western Europe, was a Salt line location. The fact does not surprise me any more!

The Elysium Quadrangle
In 1972, Mariner 9 took literally thousands of historic first photographs of some very interesting features on the surface of Mars, that perhaps are now taken for granted. Besides discovering that Mars once had water very much like Earth (evident in dried up riverbeds), the largest yet known volcanoes in the solar system (the Olympus Mons family of giant molehills), and Valles Marineris (which is named after the probe and makes the Grand Canyon look like a pot hole); the first spacecraft to turn its cameras off (and wait for a dust storm to pass into more shutterbug friendly weather) snapped another extremely important, ancient archaeological site on Mars, at 15N latitude (and 198 W longitude) - known as the Elysium Quadrangle.

Elysium has four tetrahedrons or three-sided pyramids, one of the simplest three dimensional shapes, each about a kilometer high - the largest being ten times higher, and 1000 times the volume, of the largest Giza pyramid in Egypt. They are all certainly aligned, not randomly spaced - like most Earth pyramid sites, though perhaps more complex and mathematically involved. The subject was immediately dropped when scientists could not prove that they were formed naturally - perhaps by duststorms.

Two important Mariner 9 images, MTVS 4205 (taken on February 8, 1972) and MTVS 4296 (taken on Aug 7, 1972), taken at different angles of the sun, plainly show that the structures are not random formations or illusions of surface coloration.

Mars Global Surveyor
zoom image of Elysium 
showing parallel lines of 
pyramid like structures.

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